Friday, July 12, 2024

What Is The Unemployment Rate

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Unemployment In The Eu And The Euro Area

What is the ‘real’ unemployment rate?

Eurostat estimates that 14.613 million men and women in the EU-27, of whom 12.334 million in the euro area , were unemployed in July 2021. Compared with June 2021, the number of persons unemployed decreased by 430 000 in the EU and by 350 000 in the euro area. Compared with July 2020, unemployment decreased by 1.521 million in the EU and by 1.336 million in the euro area.

In July 2021, the euro area seasonally-adjusted unemployment rate was 7.6 %, down from 7.8 % in June 2021 and from 8.4 % in July 2020. The EU unemployment rate was 6.9 % in July 2021, down from 7.1 % in June 2021 and from 7.6 % in July 2020.

are available here.

Difference Between The Unemployment And Jobs Reports

The unemployment rate and figures from the jobs report don’t always tell the same story because they are taken from two different surveys.

The unemployment rate is taken from the household survey of individuals. It describes who is employed and who isn’t based on their responses.

The number of jobs added is taken from the establishment report, more commonly called the nonfarm payroll report. This survey of businesses describes how many jobs were created or lost by industry.

Since these reports are taken from completely different sources, the number of unemployed doesn’t match the number of jobs lost. Those discrepancies are expected, and the estimates are revised each month as more data comes in.

How Much You Could Receive

We cannot tell you exactly how much you will receive before we process your application. For most people, the basic rate for calculating EI benefits is 55% of their average insurable weekly earnings, up to a maximum amount. As of January 1, 2021, the maximum yearly insurable earnings amount is $56,300. This means that you can receive a maximum amount of $595 per week.

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Criticisms Of Measuring Unemployment

There are always complications in measuring the number of unemployed. For example, what about people who do not have jobs and would be available to work, but have gotten discouraged at the lack of available jobs in their area and stopped looking? Such people, and their families, may be suffering the pains of unemployment. But the survey counts them as out of the labor force because they are not actively looking for work. Other people may tell the Census Bureau that they are ready to work and looking for a job but, truly, they are not that eager to work and are not looking very hard at all. They are counted as unemployed, although they might more accurately be classified as out of the labor force. Still other people may have a job, perhaps doing something like yard work, child care, or cleaning houses, but are not reporting the income earned to the tax authorities. They may report being unemployed, when they actually are working.

Although the unemployment rate gets most of the public and media attention, economic researchers at the Bureau of Labor Statistics publish a wide array of surveys and reports that try to measure these kinds of issues and to develop a more nuanced and complete view of the labor market. It is not exactly a hot news flash that economic statistics are imperfect. Even imperfect measures like the unemployment rate, however, can still be quite informative, when interpreted knowledgeably and sensibly.

Historical: Europe And Japan

U.S. unemployment rate soars to 14.7 percent, the worst ...
  • Beveridge, William H. . Full Employment in a Free Society . Allen & Unwin., in Great Britain.
  • Broadberry, Stephen N., and Albrecht Ritschl. “Real Wages, Productivity, and Unemployment in Britain and Germany during the 1920â²s.” Explorations in Economic History 32.3 : 327-349.
  • Dimsdale, Nicholas H., Nicholas Horsewood, and Arthur Van Riel. “Unemployment in interwar Germany: an analysis of the labor market, 1927-1936.” Journal of Economic History : 778-808. online
  • Heimberger, Philipp, Jakob Kapeller, and Bernhard Schütz. “The NAIRU determinants: Whatâs structural about unemployment in Europe?.” Journal of Policy Modeling 39.5 : 883-908. online
  • Kato, Michiya. “Unemployment and Public Works Policy in Interwar Britain and Japan: An International Comparison.” : 69-101. online
  • Kaufman, Roger T. “Patterns of Unemployment in North America, Western Europe and Japan.” Unemployment in Western countries . 3-35.
  • Nickell, Stephen, Luca Nunziata, and Wolfgang Ochel. “Unemployment in the OECD since the 1960s. What do we know?.” Economic Journal 115.500 : 1-27 online.
  • Stachura, Peter D., ed. Unemployment and the great depression in Weimar Germany .
  • Topp, Niels-Henrik. “Unemployment and Economic Policy in Denmark in the 1930s.” Scandinavian Economic History Review 56.1 : 71-90.
  • Webb, Sidney . How the Government Can Prevent Unemployment. The National Committee for the Prevention of Destitution. . Letchworth, Herts.: Garden City Press Ltd., in Great Britain

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How To Measure Unemployment

In the United States, the government uses surveys, census counts, and the number of unemployment insurance claims to track unemployment.

The U.S. Census conducts a monthly survey on behalf of the Bureau of Labor Statistics called the Current Population Survey in order to produce the primary estimate of the nations unemployment rate. This survey has been done every month since 1940. The sample consists of about 60,000 eligible households, translating to about 110,000 people each month. It changes one-fourth of the households each month in the sample so that no household is represented for more than four consecutive months in order to strengthen the reliability of the estimates.

Many variations of the unemployment rate exist with different definitions concerning who is an unemployed person and who is in the labor force. The BLS commonly cites the U-3 unemployment rate as the official unemployment rate. However, this definition does not include discouraged unemployed workers who are no longer looking for work. Other categories of unemployment include discouraged workers and part-time or underemployed workers who want to work full-time but, for economic reasons, are unable to do so.

What Is The Maximum Unemployment Benefit In Texas 2020

Amount and Duration of Unemployment Benefits in Texas As explained above, the Texas Workforce Commission determines your weekly unemployment benefit amount by dividing your earnings for the highest paid quarter of the base period by 25, up to a maximum of $535 per week. Benefits are available for up to 26 weeks.

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How Is Us Unemployment Data Collected

Official U.S. employment statistics are produced by the BLS, an agency within the Department of Labor. Every month the Census Bureau, part of the Department of Commerce, conducts the Current Population Survey using a sample of around 60,000 households, or around 110,000 individuals.

These surveys are conducted in person or over the phone. The responses are categorized by race, ethnicity, age, veteran status, and gender, all of whichalong with geographyadd nuance to the employment data. The sample is rotated so that 75% of the households are constant from month to month and 50% are from year to year.

What Is The Unemployment Rate

What is the Unemployment Rate?

The unemployment rate is defined as the percentage of unemployed workers in the total labor force. Workers are considered unemployed if they currently do not work, despite the fact that they are able and willing to do so. The total labor force consists of all employed and unemployed people within an economy.

The unemployment rate provides insights into the economys spare capacity and unused resources. Unemployment tends to be cyclical and decreases when the economy expands as companies contract more workers to meet growing demand. Unemployment usually increases as economic activity slows.

There are different types of unemployment: Frictional unemployment refers to temporary unemployment during the period when people are searching for a job. Structural unemployment is a mismatch between workers skills or locations and job requirements. Seasonal unemployment is caused by seasonal patterns in economic activity, such as harvesting or tourism.

The methodology for calculating the unemployment rate often varies among countries since different definitions of employment and unemployment, as well as different data sources, are used.

The table below shows the unemployment rate by country for the last five years.

Looking for forecasts? FocusEconomics Consensus Forecasts cover approx. 30 macro-economic indicators per country for a 5-year forecast period and quarterly forecasts for the most important economic variables. Get Details.

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Seasonal Adjustment And Trend Estimates

In the April 2020 Labour Force release, the ABS advised that the method used to produce seasonally adjusted estimates would be changed from the concurrent method to the forward factors method, during the COVID-19 period. The forward factors approach is better suited to managing large movements at the end point of series and ensures that large movements do not have a disproportionate influence on the seasonal factors.

Given the large movements in the labour market during the COVID-19 period and the continuing use of a forward factors approach to seasonal adjustment, the ABS undertook an extensive annual review of its seasonally adjusted Labour Force series, prior to the release of April 2021 estimates.

Through this process static forward factors have been calculated for the next 12 months taking effect from the April 2021 release .

Examples Of Unemployment Rate Formula

Lets take an example to understand the calculation of the Unemployment Rate in a better manner.

Unemployment Rate Formula Example #1

Let us take the example of the residents of the US to explain the concept of the unemployment rate. In the year 2018, around 155,761 thousand US residents were employed, while around 6,314 thousand were unemployed. Calculate the unemployment rate in the US for the year 2018 based on the given information.


The unemployment Rate is calculated using the formula given below

Unemployment Rate = No. of Unemployed Persons /

  • Unemployment Rate = 6,314 /
  • Unemployment Rate = 3.9%

Therefore, the unemployment rate in the US during the year 2018 stood at 3.9%.

Unemployment Rate Formula Example #2

Let us an example of a country to understand the other intricacies of the unemployment rate. Let us assume that the information pertaining to the employment status of the country is available as on December 31, 20XX.

Based on the given information, calculate the unemployment rate of the country as of December 31, 20XX.


No. of Unemployed Persons is calculated using the formula given below

No. of Unemployed Persons = Non-Institutionalized Civilian Population Volunteers Discouraged Workers Not Actively Seeking Jobs During Last 4 Weeks No of Employed Persons

  • No. of Unemployed Persons = 1,500,000 50,000 170,000 40,000 1,150,000
  • No. of Unemployed Persons = 90,000


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What Is The Unemployment Insurance Rate In Texas

The Commission set the states UI replenishment tax rate to 0.18 percent, and the deficit tax rate to 0.0 percent. The Obligation Assessment was set to 0.03 percent to cover any federal interest due on Title XII loans due on September 30, 2021.

People ask , is Texas getting $300 unemployment? Gamez adds, the TWC will continue to pay regular state unemployment benefits after June 26 to those who remain eligible or have not exhausted their state benefits. Texas is not alone in stopping the federal unemployment payment of $300 a week. Half of the states are doing it including Florida and Ohio.

Also, what is my texas state unemployment tax rate? the assessment is imposed on each employer paying contributions under the texas Unemployment Compensation Act as a separate assessment of 0.10 percent of wages paid by an employer.

, do I have to pay Texas unemployment tax? unemployment taxes are not deducted from employee wages. Most employers are required to pay unemploymentinsurance tax under certain circumstances. The texas Workforce Commission uses three employment categories: regular, domestic and agricultural. Employer tax liability differs for each type of employment.

, are Texas unemployment benefits taxable? Reporting Requirements Unemployment benefits are taxable income reportable to the Internal Revenue Service under federal law. You must report all unemployment benefits you receive to the IRS on your federal tax return.


Politics Briefing: September Jobs Boost Lowers Unemployment Rate To 69 Per Cent As Cabinet Weighs Extension Of Covid

Understanding the

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Canadian employment has returned to prepandemic levels, Statistics Canada reported Friday, as a surprise gain of 157,000 jobs in September saw the unemployment rate fall from 7.1 per cent to 6.9 per cent.

The jobs boost beat market expectations and arrives as the federal Liberals deal with the looming Oct. 23 expiration date for key pandemic programs, including wage and rent subsidies for businesses and direct payments to individuals who are unable to work because of COVID-19.

Finance Minister Chrystia Freeland said this week that she and Prime Minister Justin Trudeau have had several recent discussions about whether or not to extend the programs. The Liberal Party campaigned on a pledge to offer targeted extensions focused on the hard hit tourism sector, but business and labour organizations say the need is still there and are urging the government to approve a more broad-based extension.

The Globe and Mails Matt Lundy reports on Fridays job numbers here.

CIBC economist Royce Mendes said the recent election campaign helped create some of those part time jobs.

RBC economist Nathan Janzen cautioned in a note that it is too early to declare a full recovery.






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What Can Be Done To Alleviate Unemployment

High levels of frictional or cyclical unemployment may be remedied by means of fiscal or monetary stimulus that encourages employers to hire more workers and encourages growth. Structural unemployment, however, requires more long-term solutions than merely increasing the amount of cash in an economy, such as skills training and education or increased welfare measures to provide a social safety net.

Ei Economic Region Of Central Ontario

A map of the EI Region of Central Ontario and 1996 Census Divisions including Bruce County, Durham Regional Municipality, Grey County, Haliburton County, Hastings County, Lennox and Addington County, Muskoka District Municipality, Northumberland County, Peterborough County, Prince Edward County, Simcoe County and Victoria County.

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Definitions Types And Theories

The state of being without any work yet looking for work is called unemployment. Economists distinguish between various overlapping types of and theories of unemployment, including cyclical or Keynesian unemployment, frictional unemployment, structural unemployment and classical unemployment. Some additional types of unemployment that are occasionally mentioned are seasonal unemployment, hardcore unemployment, and hidden unemployment.

Though there have been several definitions of “voluntary” and “involuntary unemployment” in the economics literature, a simple distinction is often applied. Voluntary unemployment is attributed to the individual’s decisions, but involuntary unemployment exists because of the socio-economic environment in which individuals operate. In these terms, much or most of frictional unemployment is voluntary since it reflects individual search behavior. Voluntary unemployment includes workers who reject low-wage jobs, but involuntary unemployment includes workers fired because of an economic crisis, industrial decline, company bankruptcy, or organizational restructuring.

On the other hand, cyclical unemployment, structural unemployment, and classical unemployment are largely involuntary in nature. However, the existence of structural unemployment may reflect choices made by the unemployed in the past, and classical unemployment may result from the legislative and economic choices made by labour unions or political parties.

Is The Waiting Week Waived For Unemployment In Texas

What Is the Natural Rate of Unemployment?

Greg Abbott instructed the Texas Workforce Commission to waive the waiting week, for Unemployment Benefits. TWC is temporarily waiving these requirements to ensure all Texans can have access to resources when in need. Those seeking to apply for Unemployment Benefits will need to submit an application.

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Unemployment Under Full Employment

In demand-based theory, it is possible to abolish cyclical unemployment by increasing the aggregate demand for products and workers. However, the economy eventually hits an “inflation barrier” that is imposed by the four other kinds of unemployment to the extent that they exist. Historical experience suggests that low unemployment affects inflation in the short term but not the long term. In the long term, the velocity of money supply measures such as the MZM velocity is far more predictive of inflation than low unemployment.

Some demand theory economists see the inflation barrier as corresponding to the natural rate of unemployment. The “natural” rate of unemployment is defined as the rate of unemployment that exists when the labour market is in equilibrium, and there is pressure for neither rising inflation rates nor falling inflation rates. An alternative technical term for that rate is the NAIRU, the Non-Accelerating Inflation Rate of Unemployment. Whatever its name, demand theory holds that if the unemployment rate gets “too low,” inflation will accelerate in the absence of wage and price controls .

One of the major problems with the NAIRU theory is that no one knows exactly what the NAIRU is, and it clearly changes over time. The margin of error can be quite high relative to the actual unemployment rate, making it hard to use the NAIRU in policy-making.

Whats The Maximum Amount Of Unemployment You Can Get In Hawaii

a proportion of ones total wages during the highest three-month period in the base period. Each state has a minimum and maximum weekly benefitranging from $5 in Hawaii to $722 in Massachusetts. It is important to review the history of your earnings in order to ensure that your benefit rate is accurate.

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